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Beer fine then gets hazy
|Wild yeasts or bacteria. Cellar / dispense temperature.||Improve hygiene. Fine at temperature lower than cellar or dispense. Check dispense python cooling.|
|Cask disturbed.||Re-roll and put onto stillage.|
|Partially degraded starch.||Optimise temperature to 63-68°C during mashing (all in temperature. Stand for 1 hour (minimum) after mashing.|
|Milling too fine.||Husk pieces too small to form good filtration bed. Adjust mill to give less flour.|
|Run-off to soon after mashing.||Extend stand time. Reduce speed of run off.|
|Hole sizing in plates / plate placement.||Check that plate holes are correct size and that plates are placed in the correct positions.|
Excess or fluffy bottoms
|Isinglass / Auxilliary addition rate.||Too much being added: optimise.|
|Too many fine particles..||Optimise copper fining.|
|Yeast count low.||Increase yeast count.|
Hot/cold wort clarity poor
|Incorrect boiling regime.||Time copper fining addition correctly.
Ensure boiling is vigorous and optimise evaporation rate and boil time.
|Wort run-off clarity poor.||Use slower run off.|
|Poor cold break.||Poor dispersion of copper finings or added at wrong time or quantity.|
|Wort pH.||Should be 5.1 – 5.3 for efficient copper fining.|
|Calcium level low.||Seek specialist advice on water quality.|
|A reduction in hopping level.||Increase fining rate since hop tannins normally increase cold break.|
|Isinglass storage.||Ensure Isinglass is fresh / within use by date. Store as cool as possible (not < 4°C).|
|Auxilliary fining ineffective.||Change auxilliary. Change isinglass blend. Leave at least 30 minutes between addition of isinglass and auxilliary.|
|Dead yeast.||Remove tank bottoms.|
|Loose bottoms.||Optimise isinglass / auxilliary finings..|
|Too many fine particles..||Optimise copper fining.|
|Poor cellar handling.||Improve rousing and handling regime.|
|Check grist composition.||High sugar or syrup grist needs less copper fining. High dark malt grist needs less copper fining.
Optimise fining regime according to grist.
|Copper fining addition rate.||Too high: carageenans won’t sediment.|
|Grind too fine or coarse.||Adjust mill.|
|Poor mixing in mash tun.||Ensure even mixing.|
|Leaks in system.||Check all pipework, especially pump glands.|
|Mash thickness.||Ensure liquor to grist ratio is about 2.5:1.|
No flocculation or sedimentation
|Grease on tank or pipework.||Check cleaning regime.|
|Water quality (ionic balance).||Seek specialist advice on water quality.|
|Suspended solids too low.||Check brewhouse (mashing / coper) regime.|
|Poor cooling / skimming.||Skim and/or cool easier.|
|Fermentability too high.||Check grist, mash thickness and temperature.|
|Patchy run-off / Intermittent cloudiness|
|Channelled bed.||Ensure good mixing during mashing.
Coarse grist grind.
Check sparging doesn’t create channels and is even.
Production of problem worts
|Last runnings too weak.||Cut off collection at 1005°.|
|Yeast pitching rate.||Pitch more yeast. Normal pitching rate for worts up to 1060°. 1.7-3.3g/l (presed yeast, or about double for barm). This can be increased up to 25% to compensate for poor viability.|
|Yeast pitching time.||Pitch after vessel about quarter full of wort.|
|Low yeast viability.||Improve yeast handling. More frequent changes. Acid wash at 4°C to remove bacterial contamination, but only every 6-8 generations.
Yeast viability should be at least 90% (target 95%). Store yeast <4°C, but do not freeze. Use within 72h.
Slurry yeast in vessels at 1 to 2°C.
Pitching temperature: 15 to 17°C.
|Wort temperature too low/high.||Correct at pitching. Too high creates yeast bite.|
|Wort oxygen level out of specification.||Adjust aeration (oxygenation). Rouse and check
Range is 8 – 20 mg/litre. Use 10psi (0.7 bar) air differential at injection point to ensure small bubbles.
Consider using pure (medical) oxygen.
Increase time / vigour of rousing.
|Zinc levels too low.||Add zinc salt or yeast food. Aim for 0.05 – 0.1 mg/litre.
Levels up to 0.25 mg/litre may be necessary.
|Low ambient temperature.||Warm up room or vessels prior to use.|
|Wort cloudy.||Optimise copper finings.
Check efficiency of wort separation.
|Too many fine particles (<10mm).||Optimise copper fining.|
|Excess copper fining.||Optimise copper fining.|
|Yeast count too high or low.||Ensure yeast count about 1 million cells/ml. Rouse/mix racking tank to ensure even distribution of yeast count throughout racking.|
|Wild yeast & bacteria.||Improve hygiene of all vessels / attachments.|
|Finings temperature too low.||Store as cool as possible (not <4°C), but note: cold increases viscosity; heat denatures protein.|
|Residual fermentables too high.||Check primings addition. Secondary fermentation increases CO2 absorption, causing flocs to float.|
|Starch granules.||Check wort for starch presence using iodine solution.|
|pH.||Keep in range 3.8 – 4.2.|
|Milling too fine.||Adjust mill.|
|Blockages in mash system.||Check for blockages in: plate holes, underbed, pipework leading from mash vessel.|
|Sparge conditions.||Check that sparging is even. Check sparge temperature is high enough, but not higher than 78°C.|
|Set mash.||Optimise stand time/temperature after mashing (63-68°C, 1 hour minimum stand). Underlet bed and recirculate to refloat bed. Rake bed gently.|
|Adjunct addition too high.||Use higher percentage malt in grist.|
|Too fast a run off.||Bed is pulled down and slows run off. Underlet bed and recirculate to refloat bed.|
|Pump blockage.||Clear blockage.|
|Early / sudden cooling (thermal shock).||Adjust cooling sequence or raise temperature of attemperation coolant.|
|Early flocculation.||Increase rousing time.
Investigate Calcium / phosphate balance in water (seek specialist advice).
|Mash temperature to high.||Lower mash temperature.|
|Yeast deterioration.||Acid wash yeast: 4°C maximum.
Replace cultures more often.
|Lack of oxygen.||Adjust wort aeration (see Slow fermentation).|
Variation between casks
|Yeast levels.||Yeast slugs in cask. Improve agitation before fining and racking.|
|Fining homogeneity.||Check mixing in holding tank. Rouse before use.|
|Poor fining dispersion.||Roll casks before stillage.|